Sex Education
   
 

Your future is in your hand

How Pregnancy Occurs

  1. Starting from puberty, an egg is released from one of the ovaries about once every month in female. This is called ovulation.

  2. During sexual intercourse, a man ejaculates semen (which contains a vast number of sperms) into a woman's vagina. These sperms travel to the womb and into the fallopian tubes.

  3. If sexual intercourse takes place around the time of ovulation, one of the sperms may unite with the egg in the fallopian tube and forms a 『fertilized』 egg.

  4. The fertilized egg implants itself in the lining of the womb and develops into a fetus.

  5. The fetus continues to grow in the womb. At about 37-40 weeks, the womb begins to contract rhythmically and with dilatation of the cervix, the baby is born.

If the egg does not unite with any sperm, the sperms will disintegrate within a few days. The thickened lining of the womb then sheds off and menstruation occurs.

Sexuality and Youth

  • During adolescence, many physical and psychological changes take place.This is the period when teenagers become interested in the opposite sex and fall in love easily. However, teenagers are not mature enough to cope with the responsibilities of marriage and parenthood

  • Before teenagers enter into any sexual encounters, they should be clear of the consequences, which include:
    (1) Unwanted pregnancy resulting in the birth of an unwanted child. This may
    * affect academic achievement and work capability
    * lead to social pressure
    * end up with single-parent family due to unstable relationships
    * have psycho-social impact on the child
    * cause children behavioul problem due to lack of care
    (2) Termination of unwanted pregnancy by abortion. This may
    * cause deep emotional problems, unhappiness and regrets
    * harm physical and psychological health
    * lead to complications e.g. pelvic infection, perforation of uterus, infertility
    (3) Contracting diseases such as
    * sexually transmitted diseases e.g. gonorrhoea, herpes, syphilis which may cause permanent damage to the reproductive organs leading to infertility or even affect the next generation
    * AIDS which destroys the body's defence system, resulting in death
    * hepatitis B which may lead to cirrhosis of the liver, liver failure and liver cancer

  • Building healthy interpersonal relation is one of the developmental milestones of teenagers. Good interpersonal relationships base on effective communication skills, including refusal skill such as turning down sexual demands.

  • Don't take chances. Any unsafe sex exposes you to the possibility of getting AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. So, make sure you are ready to accept the responsibilities and take necessary precautions before having sexual intercourse

  • Contraceptive methods are used for family planning, not for encouraging premarital sex or promiscuity

  • All contraceptive methods do not give 100% protection, particularly when they are not properly used. You should seek advice from health professionals on the different methods, their side effects and usage. Remember, you may still contract diseases e.g. sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, hepatitis B even if you do not conceive

  • If you suspect that you have become infected or pregnant, seek advice immediately from your parents, social workers or health professionals

  • Obtain sex education from proper channels, e.g,:
    Central Health Education Unit
    http://www.cheu.gov.hk/eng/info/adolescent_03.htm
    The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong
    http://www.famplan.org.hk/sexedu/en/index.asp

Some Methods of Contraception

Contraceptive
Method
How it works? Person to use How to use it? Effective-ness Points to note
oral contraceptive
  • contains hormones which prevent the release of eggs from the ovary
Female
  • Usually comes in 21-day or 28-day pack.
  • To be taken according to instruction of health professionals
High
  • Consult a doctor first to see whether it is suitable for use.
  • Follow instruction of use.
  • Have regular health checks.
male condom
  • A thin sheath of rubber worn over the penis. It acts as a barrier by collecting the sperms so that they cannot enter the vagina and fertilise the egg
Male
  • Unroll over the erect penis before penetration and withdraw immediately after ejaculation while erection is still present.
Moderate
  • Need to be used every time.
  • Condoms must not be reused.
spermicide
(foaming tablets, jelly, vaginal contraceptive film and sponge
  • contains chemical which immobilises and kills sperms
Female
  • Foaming tablets should be moistened with water before being placed in the vagina. Jelly is applied with a syringe. Vaginal contraceptive film and sponge are inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse.
Low to Moderate
  • They need to be used properly before each sexual intercourse (follow the instructions of use).
  • They are generally less reliable when used alone. They are usually used in conjunction with barrier methods such as the condom.
  • There are reported cases of allergic reaction for male and female.
natural family planning
  • the partners avoid sexual intercourse around the time of ovulation so that the egg will not be able to unite with any sperm
Male/Female
  • Estimate the time of ovulation based on timing of menstrual cycle and recording of body temperature
Low
  • The effectiveness of the method depends on the regularity of the menstrual cycle and the co-operation between the partners
  • Emotions and diseases can affect the time of ovulation

 

Helpful Hints for a Bright Future

 
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